Sentence Pattern 19: Using Parallel
incorporate possession into each
For additional help using parallel structure, see Capital Community College Guide to Grammar and Writing http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/parallelism.htm
When you include two or more similar thoughts in the same sentence, they should be constructed in a similar way. Similar construction is called "parallel structure." There are many situations when parallel structure is used. Here's a few:
1. If one item in a series is listed as a prepositional phrase, the others should be in a prepositional phrase also.
Example: After a game of soccer, Bob quaffs a gallon of Gatorade, a quart of Quencher, and a pint of prune juice.
NOT: ...Bob quaffs a gallon of Gatorade, a quart of Quencher, and some prune juice.
2. If one clause of a sentence is in ACTIVE voice, the other clause should also be in ACTIVE voice (not PASSIVE).
Example: Bob participated in three events and won awards in all three.
NOT: Bob participated in three events and was awarded a prize in all three.
3. If listing a series of actions (verbs) in a sentence, use the same verb tense.
Example: Whenever he feels melancholy, Bob runs on the beach, plays tennis, sees an upbeat movie, or calls a friend. (All verbs are in present tense.)
NOT: ..., Bob runs on the beach, plays tennis, saw an upbeat movie, or calls a friend. (Saw is in past tense.)
4. There are lots of other situations in writing that require parallel structure. It's hard to classify all of them. Here's a few other examples of parallel structure.
Right: Fearing failure, Bob began trembling, sweating, and vomiting.
Wrong: ..., Bob began trembling, sweating, and he vomited.
Right: Because Bob became an investigative reporter, he asked where the accident occurred, when it occurred, and why it occurred.
Wrong: ...., he asked where the accident occurred, when it occurred, and the reason it occurred.
Coordinate ideas must use the same tense or structure. (These examples are taken from PUSD's Writing Manuel.)
|Wrong:||We learned how to change a tire, shift sixteen gears, and once almost ran the truck off the road.|
|Correct:||We learned how to change a tire, shift sixteen gears, and keep the truck from running off the road.|
|(All the objects of the verb learned are parallel.)|
|Wrong:||I have mowed the lawn, washed the dog, rescued our hamster, and went to the store all in one day.|
|Correct:||I mowed the lawn, washed the dog, rescued our hamster, and went to the store all in one day.|
|(All the verbs are parallel)|
|Wrong:||Water skiing no longer interests me as much as to go scuba diving.|
|Correct:||Water skiing no longer interests me as much as scuba diving.|
practice: Underline the correct ending for each sentence below.
1. The movie Catch Me If You Can featured a character who was daring, racy, and...
(a) ...intelligent. (b) ...used his intelligence.
2. Leonardo DiCaprio portrayed a charlatan who impersonated others, accepted jobs he was not qualified to do, and... (a) ...put others in perilous situations. (b)...others were put in perilous situations.
3. Before the 10-mile run began, Fritz ate a protein bar and... (a)...quaffed a jug of Gatorade. (b)...will quaff a jug of Gatorade.
4. "Don't mock me and ... (a) ...don't mock others," warned the principal. (b)...it's not nice to mock others," warned the principal.
5. Finding herself in a perilous predicament, Porsha decided she should retrace her steps, find a map,and..
(a)...take a safer route. (b)...a safer route was found.