SENTENCE PATTERNS

SP 1: IC, conjunction  IC. (or IC; IC.) SP 2: Adjective(s), IC.  SP 3: Adverb + adverb, IC.
SP 4: Prepositional phrase, IC SP 5: Present participial phrase,IC. SP 6: Past participial phrase,IC
SP 7: Appositive Phrase, IC. SP 8: UNDER CONSTRUCTION SP 9: IC,conj. adv, IC.
SP 10: Adj(s), IC, conj  adv, IC. SP 11: IC + DC (adj clause). (or DC, IC.) SP 12: Adverb Clauses
SP 13: Using Whom (vs. who) SP 14:Using Who’s and Whose SP 15: Writing Dialogue
SP 16:Using Colons to List SP 17: Parallel Structure SP 18: Similes & Metaphors
SP-19: Using Possessives SP-20: SP-17 + SP-19  Sentence Pattern Review 1-20
     

SENTENCE PATTERN 1: IC, conjunction IC. (or   IC;IC.)

 Examples:

    The insatiable grizzly devoured the salmon, and its belly was soon bulging. 
   
The insatiable grizzly devoured the salmon; its belly was soon bulging.

    Flamboyant Bob went to the movies, but bashful Bert rented a video.  
    Flamboyant Bob went to the movies; bashful Bert rented a video.  

   John was asked to deliver an impromptu speech, and his mind raced with fear.  
   John was asked to deliver an impromptu speech; his mind raced with fear.  

NOTE: Some ICs have compound subjects or compound verbs but they are not compound sentences (SP-1). 
These EXAMPLES are NOT SP-1 because each sentence has only one IC:  
    S + V + V.  (no comma needed)  The foolish
caveman killed the mammoth but spared the saber-tooth tiger's life! 
    S + S + V.  (no comma needed)  The
cave-bear and saber-tooth tiger attacked the barbaric caveman simultaneously.

Each IC has a S + V.   THESE examples demonstrate SP-1:  
IC, conjunction IC.  The foolish
caveman killed the mammoth, but he spared the saber-tooth tiger's life!   
IC; IC.             The foolish
caveman killed the wooly mammoth; the mammoth was not an adversary but a meal!   

HOMEWORK DIRECTIONS: 
* Relate all five sentences to social studies, Ch 1.2 - 1.3. 
* Write at least one sentence for each of the following:  IC, and IC.  IC, but IC.   IC, or IC.   IC; IC.

* Use a key term, key person, or academic word in each sentence.  Include context clues that show the meaning.  Highlight these words.
* Underline the subject and verb in each IC.  Underline verbs twice.


SENTENCE PATTERN 2:  Adjective + adjective, IC.

IC = subject + verb

Here are just a few examples of adjectives:

colorful    blue    sparkling    beautiful    shiny    clear    immaculate    rocky    courageous    soft    pink    bright    cute    dark    hungry    rebellious
gigantic    purple    filthy    fuzzy     rough    tiny    prickly    clean    spotless    radiant    peculiar   miniscule     evil    precarious    dandy    hyperactive    gorgeous       ecstatic    gloomy    mischievous     caring    huge    demonic    seamy    professional    ugly    hideous    strategic    lazy    frilly    microscopic    lacy    spectacular    amazing    devious    heinous    awesome        disgusting    slimy    freezing     dexterous         

Lazy but clever, the student contrived a colorful excuse for his missing homework.
NOT:   The lazy, clever student contrived....

Subversive and seamy, the terrorists attacked New York City on September 11, 2001.
NOT:  The subversive, seamy terrorists attacked...

Skillful and  dexterous, baseball players generally catch pop flies  and line drives.
   NOT:  The skillful and dexterous baseball players...

 

SENTENCE PATTERN 3:  Adverb + adverb, Independent Clause (Adv + adv, IC.)

Examples:

Hungrily and greedily, the grizzly devoured the salmon. 

(How did the grizzly devour?)

NOT:  Hungry and greedy, the grizzly devoured the salmon.
            (Hungry and greedy are
adjectives.)

Suddenly but quietly, the bear plunked down for a nap. 

(When and how did the bear plunk?)

NOT:  Sudden and quiet, the bear plunked...

Lucidly and placidly, the gigantic football player meditated into a deep trance near the tranquil pond and cleared his troubled mind.

Skillfully and subversively, the adversary of Harry Potter, Voldemort, eradicated his enemies who plotted against him.

Lazily but gracefully, the lethargic sloth climbed back up the massive pine tree. (AM class, 2012)

Cleverly
but deviously, Jessie contrived an excuse for being late that would placate his mother.(PM class, 2012)

SENTENCE PATTERN 4:  Prepositional phrase, Independent Clause (Pp, IC.)

        Examples:  under, before, after, for, to, from, in, out, beneath, at, despite

        Examples:  under the bed, before school, in the closet, after the storm

Examples: 

Under the bed, the cat hid from its owner. (Where did the cat hide?)

     After the storm, the sun came out, forming a rainbow. (When …?)

    With great care, the veterinarian removed the thorn from the tiger's paw.

        (How did the veterinarian remove the thorn?)

SENTENCE PATTERN 5: Present participial phrase, Independent Clause (Ppp, IC.)

Examples: 

 

SENTENCE PATTERN 6: Past participial phrase, Independent Clause. (Ppp, IC.)

Examples:  exhausted, famished, stripped, bleached, crazed

Examples: 

    Uninhabited a few days earlier, the shore was now crowded with grizzlies.

WRONG:  Crazed with hunger, the shore was lined with grizzlies.

RIGHT:    Crazed with hunger,  the grizzlies lined the shore.

Exhausted from fishing all day, the bear plunked down for a nap.

Stripped clean by hungry grizzlies, salmon bones now littered the shore.

Crazed with jealousy, Bob raced recklessly to his girlfriend's house when he heard Bert was taking her to the dance.  

Freed from ignorance and superstition, Enlightenment thinkers postulated that natural laws governed society.

SENTENCE PATTERN 7: Appositive Phrase, Independent Clause.  (AP, IC. or AP inside the IC.)

The grizzly, a predator, eats fish.  appositive AFTER the noun

A predator, the grizzly eats fish.   appositive BEFORE the noun
Sam, my brother, is exasperating.  appositive AFTER the noun              
My brother, Sam, is exasperating.  appositive AFTER the noun
Harry Potter, a literary character, is well known. appositive phrase AFTER... A literary character ,Harry Potter is well known.
appositive phrase BEFORE..

          Example: Cassie Logan, a nine-year-old African-American, despised Lillian Jean, an uppity white girl.         

EXAMPLES:  
The
grizzly, a fearless predator, eats little meat other than fish. 
Sam, my pesky little brother, is exasperating.  
My pesky little brother, Sam, is exasperating.
A pesky little brother, Sam is exasperating.

George, one of Michael's friends, was not placid during the last test; he was so nervous and jittery that he failed.            
The infamous Joker, an evil adversary of Batman and Robin, caused much mayhem in Gotham City.
The Nazis, brutal, evil people, were ruthless and chaotic, planning subversive attacks on their innocent adversaries, the Jews.

A fearless predator, the grizzly eats little meat other than fish.  
A pesky little brother,
Sam is exasperating.  
A well-known author,
Shel Silverstein  writes children’s poetry.  
A well-known character, Harry Potter  is an adventurous young man.  

AM Class Example:  John Hancock, an arrogant delegate at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, treated people like they were his lackeys.

HOMEWORK: due Wed. (1st draft) and Friday (revised copy)
* 10 sentences using SP-7 and vocab. 51-60
* Must relate to SS Ch 3 (and
We the People Units 3 and 4)

 

 

SENTENCE PATTERN 8: UNDER CONSTRUCTION

SENTENCE PATTERN 9: IC, conj adverb, IC.

SP 9 =SP-3 + SP-8!
SP 9 = IC, conjunction adverb, IC.   

IC = Independent Clause = a complete sentence with a subject (S) and a verb (V)
Adverb = a word that tells how, when, or where the action (verb) occurs

Comma Rules:  
* Use a comma and a conjunction (and, or, but, so) to join two Independent Clauses (IC's).                                                           
* When an adverb precedes an IC, use a comma.
  EX: Angrily, Bob protested.
Example:  Pluto stepped in a puddle, and slowly, murky water permeated his shoes.
Example:  Suddenly, a calamity struck the mid-western town, but everyone survived the tornado unharmed.
** You can also reverse this pattern, like this:  Adverb, IC, conjunction IC.
Example:  Yesterday, a tornado struck the mid-western town, and the calamity took many lives.
Example:  Unknowingly, Bojangles walked into a ghetto, and suddenly, he was immersed in a world of gangs and graffiti.

* This week, use five unit 9 spelling words to write your sentences using SP-9.  
1st draft due Wed.  Final copy due Friday (edited, revised, typed or recopied in INK).

SENTENCE PATTERN 10: Adj + adj, IC, conjunction adverb, IC.

SP 10 is a combination of SP 2, 3, and 8!
SP 10 = Adj + adj, IC, conjunction adverb, IC.
SP 10 = Adj + adj, subject + verb, conjunction adverb, subject + verb.
 
Ex:  Gaunt and weak, the model staggered down the runway, and suddenly, she collapsed.
Ex:  Careful and concerned, Beatrice borrowed her friend's boat, but unfortunately, a renegade rowboat rammed into it during the raging storm.
EX:  Lonely and depressed, the nomad traveled down a hill on his bike, and hopefully, he was trying to find a new home.

SENTENCE PATTERN 11: IC + DC (adj clause)

SP 11 = IC + adj DC (adjective Dependent Clause)
adj DC = a dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun as the subject
       
This clause functions as an adjective because it describes a noun.

Relative Pronoun = a pronoun that relates to a noun in the IC (any noun): that, which, who, whose, whom
Comma Rules:
1.  If the
adj DC is extra information, use commas
2.  If the
adj DC is essential information, use NO commas
3.  If the relative pronoun used is "that," use NO commas. 
    Ex:  Joe ate a deplorable pizza
that was moldy, and it made him sick.
4.  If the relative pronoun used is "which," use commas.  (IC DAC, and IC.)
    Ex:   Joe ate a deplorable pizza,
which was moldy, and then drank a gallon of Gatorade.  (IC, adj DC, IC continued.
5.  For who, whose, or whom give it the extra or essential test.

Ex: Stout, who was a cruel, sadistic man, threw a slave overboard.(extra info)
 Ex: Cawthorne was another cruel man who was the captain of the Moonlight.
(essential info)
Ex: Jane read a book
that was 500 pages long in just three days!  (e
ssential info)
Ex: Jane read a book,
which was 500 pages long, and then wrote a book report.  (extra info)

* When you write these sentences for homework, underline the subjects and verbs in both the IC and the adj DC.  Remember, the relative pronoun is the subject of the adj DC.  

HOMEWORK:
Five sentences due 11/21/13 (1st draft)  
Final, TYPED revised copy due 11/22/13.

Use vocab words 56-60; sentences must relate to Poe, his works, or SS.

Underline ALL subjects & verbs in ICs and
adj DC.
Highlight the
adj DC in yellow.
Highlight the vocab word in another color.

Use each rule (and relative pronoun) at least once: that, which, who.

 

SP 12: Adverb Clauses (DC, IC.   -or-    IC + DC.)

* An adverb clause is a dependent clause (DC) that tells how, when, where, or why the action (verb) takes place. 
* All clauses have a
subject and a verb, even DCs.
* An
adverb clause begins with
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION such as before, after, because, so, when, while  or a  (see Language Network p. 192).  Some adverbs are also subordinating conjunctions.  (Coordinating conjunctions- and, or, but-  join two IC's.  Subordinating conjunctions join a DC to an IC.)  See Conjunctions for more information.
*
Comma Rules:
    1.  If the DC (adverb clause) precedes the IC, use a comma.   (DC, IC.)
    2.  If the IC precedes the DC (adverb clause), use NO comma.  (IC + DC.)
Examples:
    1. 
Because he was famished, Bob ate an entire extra-large pizza.   (DC, IC.)  COMMA REQUIRED
   
2.  Bob ate an entire extra-large pizza because he was an insatiable glutton.  (IC + DC.)  NO COMMA
    3. The teacher rescinded her offer to give us ten points
after we got our parent's signature on the test.   (IC + DC.) NO COMMA

 

SP 13:  Using whom (vs. who or whose) in Interrogative Sentences
Write questions using whom to rename a noun which functions as an object in the answer.)  Hint:  To determine the parts of speech, write or think about the answer to the question.  What is the subject?  Verb?  Direct object? (or object of a prepostion)?  These words will play the same role in the question format.

Whom is always used as a direct object or the object of a preposition when renaming a person or group of people. (Otherwise, use what.)
    1. Direct object: Use
whom to rename the direct object in a question.
        Whom
did you call?   
         (Answer: I called
JoeJoe is a direct object.)
       
Whom did you pay for the dance tickets?
        (Answer:  I paid
Dave for the dance tickets.  Dave is a direct object.)
    
    2. Object of preposition: Use whom to rename the object of a prepostion.
           
To whom did you speak?  (NOT: Whom did you speak to?)
             (Answer: I spoke to
JoeJoe is the object of a preposition.)
            You gave my number
to whom
            (Answer: I gave your number to
Joe.)

Example: 
Q: 
Whom are Joe and his friends, a group of fourteen-year-old athletes, savvy about?    
Q:  Joe and his friends, a group of fourteen-year-old athletes, are very savvy
about whom?
A:  Joe and his friends, a group of fourteen year-old athletes, are very savvy
about soccer players.

* Who is always used as a subject or a predicate pronoun (a pronoun that follows the verb).  We used who (and that or which) is SP 11.
    Subject of IC:
Who called the power company?
    Subject of DC: The person
who hit my car should have to pay to fix the damages.
    Predicate Pronoun: The electrician is
who?

Go to this Website to find out more about the use of who, whose, and whom:
   
http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/pronouns.htm   
        Find and read Basic Principle # 5.  For more help, take one or more of the quizzes at the bottom of this Website and check your answers.  Use the HINTS provided to learn the rules.

 

SP 14:  Using Who’s and Whose in Interrogative Sentences

Write 2-3 interrogative sentences (questions) using whose correctly and 2-3 using who’s correctly.  Use one vocabulary word from Week 13 in each sentence. 

whose = a possessive pronoun showing ownership  (Whose book is this?  This book is mine.)
who’s = who is (
Who’s going to the dance?  Everyone is going to the dance.)     Who = the subject;  is = the verb

(The only problem most writers have with whose is confusing it with who's, which looks like a possessive but is really the contraction for who is.  In the same way that we should not confuse his with he's (he is) or hers with she's (she is) or its with it's (it is), we should not confuse whose with who's.)  
For example:
   
Who's that walking down the street?
   
Whose coat is this? (This is whose coat?)
    I don't care whose paper this is.  It's brilliant!

Whose can be used to refer to inanimate objects as well as to people (although there is a kind of folk belief that it should refer only to humans and other mammals): "I remember reading a book — whose title I can't recall right now — about a boy and a basenji."

SP 15: Writing Dialogue

Here are three ways to use speaker tags and quotation marks with dialogue:
1) The speaker tags come before the dialogue:
   EX:  Mary moaned, "That eerie haunted house gave me nightmares."
          ____ _____, "__________________________________."
2) The speaker tags come after the dialogue:
"That eerie haunted house gave me nightmares," moaned Mary.

" Did that eerie haunted house give you nightmares?" questioned Mary.

"____________________________?" _______ ______.

" That eerie haunted house gave me nightmares!" exclaimed Mary.
        
   "__________________________________!"  ______ ____.
3) The speaker tags come in the middle of the dialogue, in the middle of a sentence:
     EX:  "That eerie haunted house," moaned Mary, "gave me nightmares."
            "___________________," ______ ____, "______________."

            "___________________," wondered _____, "______________?"

           "___________________," declared_____, "______________!"

4)  "Sometimes my teacher can be a kibitzer," complained Fred. "She often tells us to go to bed early."

 

Homework: 

Write 6 sentences using Week 15 Vocabulary words (+and one other vocabulary word from the past weeks).  Use the four ways described above at least once each.  Underline the subjects and verbs in both the dialogue and the speaker tags, e.g."That eerie haunted house gave me nightmares, " moaned Mary. Check for correct placement of quotation marks, commas, periods and capital letters.  Make sure each sentence is 12 words or more, including the speaker tags.   

SP 16: Using Colons in Sentences to List

Use a colon (:) in a sentence when listing objects, people, places, activities, etc.

NEVER use a colon AFTER a VERB or PREPOSITION!

Never place a colon between the subject and the verb.

Example: We need the following items for school: pens, paper, pencils, and scissors.
  
  Wrong:  For school we need: pens, paper, pencils, and scissors.
        Why?  When the list immediately follows a verb, no colon is needed.

Example: Robin Williams impersonates these people: Bill Clinton, George Bush, and Bill Gates.
   
Wrong: Robin Williams impersonates: Bill Clinton, George Bush, and Bill Gates.
        Why? When the list immediately follows a verb, no colon is needed.

Example:  Many people work in government positions: members of the judicial branch, heads of the president's cabinets, and representatives in Congress.  (Use parallel structure. See SP-18)

Example: Proper etiquette includes the following: listen to others, raise your hand to speak, and wait to be called on.
   
Wrong: Proper etiquette includes: listening to others, raising your hand to speak, and waiting to be called on.
       
Why? When the list immediately follows a verb, no colon is needed.

SP 16 Using Colons to List (in Parallel Structure):

Here are some materials that are inflexible: a piece (of wood), a slab (of granite), and a block (of cement).

Many activities occur in a ghetto: basketball, bootlegging, and gambling.

These chores are very mundane: doing laundry, emptying the trash, vacuuming the carpet, and washing the dishes.

 

Sentence Pattern 17: Using Parallel Structure

Copy and paste this lesson into your Lang. Arts spiral (grammar section) and do the "Homework" exercises below.

Parallel Structure 
For additional help using parallel structure, see Capital Community College Guide to Grammar and Writing http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/parallelism.htm

                Coordinated ideas must use the same verb tense or structure.  (These examples are taken from PUSD's Writing Manuel.)

Wrong: We learned how to change a tire, shift sixteen gears, and once almost ran the truck off the road.  
Correct: We learned how to change a tire, shift sixteen gears, and keep the truck from running off the road. 
(All the infinitives and direct objects are parallel.)
Wrong: I have mowed the lawn, washed the dog, rescued our hamster, and gone to the store all in one day.
Correct:  I mowed the lawn, washed the dog, rescued our hamster, and went to the store all in one day. 
(All the verbs are parallel)  
Wrong: Water skiing no longer interests me as much as going scuba diving.  
Correct: Water skiing no longer interests me as much as scuba diving.  

When you include two or more similar thoughts in the same sentence, they should be constructed in a similar way.  Similar construction is called "parallel structure."  There are many situations when parallel structure is used.  Here's a few:
1.  If one item in a series is listed as a prepositional phrase, the others should be in a prepositional phrase also.
    GOOD example:  After a game of soccer, Bob quaffs a gallon
of Gatorade, a quart of Quencher, and a pint of prune juice.  
   
NOT: ...Bob quaffs a gallon of Gatorade, a quart of Quencher, and some prune juice.

AM example:  Bill was so famished that he could eat the hind leg of a cow, the tongue of a pig, and the brain of a monkey.

PM example: The hostile mercenary was as sneaky as James Bond, as delirious as a drunken hobo, and as merciless as the Grim Reaper.   

2.  If one clause of a sentence is in ACTIVE voice, the other clause should also be in ACTIVE voice (not PASSIVE), i.e. all clauses should be in the same voice, ACTIVE or PASSIVE.
    GOOD example:  Bob
participated in three events and won awards in all three.
    NOT:  Bob
participated in three events and was awarded a prize in all three.

AM example:  An alien immigrated to America and applied for citizenship.  WRONG:  An alien immigrated (active voice) to America and was given citizenship (passive voice).
PM example: The fickle teacher impetuously offered to give her PM students a hundred dollars each if they washed her car, but she rescinded the offer when the principal offered to buy her a new Mercedes Benz.  (IC + DC, but IC + DC.)

3.  If listing a series of actions (verbs) in a sentence, use the same verb tense.
    Example:  Whenever he
feels melancholy, Bob runs on the beach, plays tennis, sees an upbeat movie, or calls a friend.   (All verbs are in present tense.)
    NOT:  ..., Bob
runs on the beach, plays tennis, saw an upbeat movie, or calls a friend.  (Saw is in past tense.)
4.  There are lots of other situations in writing that require parallel structure.  It's hard to classify all of them.  Here's a few other examples of parallel structure.
    Right:  Fearing failure, Bob began
trembling, sweating, and vomiting.
    Wrong:  ..., Bob began
trembling, sweating, and he vomited.
    Right: Because Bob became an investigative reporter, he asked
where the accident occurred, when it occurred, and why it occurred. 
    Wrong: ...., he asked
where the accident occurred, when it occurred, and the reason it occurred.

SP 17 Homework:  Underline the correct ending for each sentence below.
1.  The movie
Catch Me If You Can featured a character who was daring, racy, and...
(a) ...intelligent.    (b) ...used his intelligence.
2.  Leonardo DiCaprio portrayed a charlatan who impersonated others, accepted jobs he was not qualified to do, and...   (a) ...put others in perilous situations.  (b)...others were put in perilous situations.
3.  Before the 10-mile run began, Fritz ate a protein bar and...  (a)...quaffed a jug of Gatorade.     (b)...will quaff a jug of Gatorade.
4.  "Don't mock me and ... (a) ...don't mock others," warned the principal.   (b)...it's not nice to mock others," warned the principal.
5.  Finding herself in a perilous predicament, Porsha decided she should retrace her steps, find a map,and..
   (a)...take a safer route.   (b)...a safer route was found.

SP 18: Writing Similes & Metaphors

Write a sentence for each vocabulary word which uses a simile or metaphor.  Each sentence must have 12+ words.  Edit all spelling, punctuation, capitalization.  Use vocabulary words meaningfully.  Highlight or box vocab. word.

Examples:
    Simile:  My
teacher gives as much advice as a kibitzer because she tells us every day to work hard and prioritize academics.
    Metaphor:  My
teacher is a kibitzer who tells us every day to work hard and prioritize academics.
    Simile:  The
clouds were like white snow balls, dancing across the sky..
    Metaphor:  The clouds
were white snow balls, dancing across the sky.

 

SP-19:  Using Possessive Nouns (from PUSD’s Writing With Style Manual)
Write one sentence for each of the six rules shown below.  Each sentence must use one of this week's vocabulary words.

1. Add an apostrophe and an s to form the possessive of singular nouns, even if the noun ends in s:  

Bob Dylan’s voice       

the kiss’s meaning

Dickens’s novels  

2. Add only an apostrophe to form the possessive of plural nouns ending in s.  If the plural does not end in s, add ‘s to form the possessive:  

the Joneses’ father

the Padres’ last game

children’s library

3. For the possessive form of a compound noun or an indefinite pronoun, place an apostrophe and an s after the last word:  

mother-in-law’s apartment

Secretary of State’s telephone  

everybody’s                

someone else’s 

anyone’s  

4. Possessive personal pronouns (his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs and the relative pronoun whose) do not require an apostrophe.  
Remember that the word immediately before the apostrophe is the owner:  

parent’s car = one parent owns

boss’ office = one boss owns  

parents’ car = two parents own            

bosses’ office = many bosses own  

5. When ownership is shared, the apostrophe is also shared; use the possessive form only on the last item in a series to indicate shared ownership:  
  • Caitlin, Chris, and Joshua’s house = the house is shared by all three  
6. When ownership is individual, each noun in a series gets its own individual apostrophe and s:  
  • Caitlin’s, Chris’s, and Joshua’s jackets = each has his or her own jacket  
           

SP-20 = SP-18 Using Parallel Structure + SP-19 Using Possessive Nouns

Write five sentences that use possessive nouns (SP-19) AND parallel structure (SP-18).  Review each of these sentence patterns above and study the examples below.

EXAMPLES:

1.  John
Steinbeck's novel,The Pearl, contains many examples of imagery and illustrates multiple themes.

2.  My three
friends' favorite sports are snowboarding at Big Bear, snorkeling in La Jolla, and playing basketball at the YMCA.

3.  The Secretary of Defense's responsibilities are to  serve as a liaison between the military and the president and advise the president on military preparedness.

 

Sentence Pattern 1-20 Review